Comparative religion for all human: By TM Kamal Pasha

 Comparative Religion For all Human: 

 

By TM Kamal Pasha   

Introduction:

Christianity is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings. It also considers the Hebrew Bible, which is known as the Old Testament, to be canonical. Adherents of the Christian faith are known as Christians.

 

The mainstream Christian belief is that Jesus is the Son of God, fully divine and fully human and the savior of humanity. Because of this, Christians commonly refer to Jesus as Christ or Messiah.Jesus' ministry, sacrificial death, and subsequent resurrection are often referred to as the Gospel, meaning "Good News" In short, the Gospel is news of God the Father's eternal victory over evil, and the promise of salvation and eternal life for all people, through divine grace.

 

Worldwide, the three largest groups of Christianity are the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the various denominations of Protestantism. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox patriarchates split from one another in the East West Schism of 1054 AD, and Protestantism came into existence during the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, splitting from the Roman Catholic Church.

 

Christianity began as a Jewish sect in the mid-1st century. Originating in the Levant region of the Middle East (modern Israel and Palestine), it quickly spread to Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and Egypt. It grew in size and influence over a few decades, and by the end of the 4th century had become the official state church of the Roman Empire, replacing other forms of religion practiced under Roman rule.During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized, with Christians also being a sometimes large religious minority in the Middle East, North Africa, Ethiopia and parts of India.Following the Age of Discovery, through missionary work and colonization, Christianity spread to the Americas, Australasia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world.

 

Christians believe that Jesus is the Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible, referred to as the "Old Testament" in Christianity. The foundation of Christian theology is expressed in the early Christian ecumenical creeds which contain claims predominantly accepted by followers of the Christian faith. These professions state that Jesus suffered, died, was buried, and was resurrected from the dead in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust him for the remission of their sins (salvation). They further maintain that Jesus bodily ascended into heaven where he rules and reigns with God the Father. Most denominations teach that Jesus will return to judge all humans, living and dead, and grant eternal life to his followers. He is considered the model of a virtuous life, and both the revealer and physical incarnation of God.

 

As of the early 21st century, Christianity has approximately 2.2 billion adherents. Christianity represents about a third of the world's population and is the world's largest religion. Christianity is the state religion of several countries. Among all Christians, 37.5% live in the Americas, 25.7% live in Europe, 22.5% live in Africa, 13.1% live in Asia, 1.2% live in Oceania and 0.9% live in the Middle East. Christianity has played a prominent role in shaping of sub-Saharan African and Western civilization.

 

Its main teachings:

1. Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God and the Holy Spirit

2. The death, descent into hell, resurrection, and ascension of Christ

3. The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints

4.Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful. 

 

The Nicene Creed, largely a response to Arianism, was formulated at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 respectively and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.

The Chalcedonian Creed, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox Churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably": one divine and one human, and that both natures are perfect but are nevertheless perfectly united into one person.

The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance."

Most Christians (Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Rite and Protestants alike) accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the creeds mentioned above.

 

Ten Commandments:

The Ten Commandments, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and most forms of Christianity.

1.You shall have no other Gods but me.

2.You shall not make for yourself any idol, nor bow down to it or worship it.

3.You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your God.

4.You shall remember and keep the Sabbath day holy.

5.Respect your father and mother.

6.You must not kill.

7.You must not commit adultery.

8.You must not steal.

9.You must not give false evidence against your neighbour.

10.You must not be envious of your neighbour's goods. You shall not be envious of his house nor his wife, nor anything that belongs to your neighbour.

 

Majore prophets:

Aaron (Exodus 7:1)

Abel (Luke 11:50-51)

Abraham (Genesis 20:7)

Agabus (Acts 21:10)

Agur (Book of Proverbs 30:1)

Ahijah (1 Kings 11:29)

Amos (Amos 7:8)

Anna (Luke 2:36)

Asaph (Matthew 13:35)

Azariah (2 Chronicles 15:1)

Barnabas (Acts 13:1)

Daniel (Matthew 24:15)

David (Hebrews 11:32)

Deborah (Judges 4:4)

Elijah (1 Kings 18:22)

Elisha (1 Kings 19:16)

Enoch (Jude 1:14)

Ezekiel (Ezekiel 1:3)

Gad (2 Samuel 24:11)

Habakkuk (Habakkuk 1:1)

Haggai (Haggai 1:1)

Hosea (Hosea 1:1)

Huldah (2Kings 22:14)

Iddo (2 Chronicles 9:29)

Isaiah (Isaiah 13:37)

Jacob (Genesis 28:11 - 16)

Jehu (1 Kings 16:7)

Jeremiah (Jeremiah 1:11)

Jesus (God the Son and/or Son of God) (Matthew 13:57)

Joel (Joel 1:1)

John the Baptist (Luke 7:28)

John of Patmos (Revelation 1:1)

Jonah (Jonah 1:1)

Joshua (Joshua 1:1)

Judas Barsabbas (Acts 15:32)

Lucius of Cyrene (Acts 13:1)

Malachi (Malachi 1:1)

Manahen (Acts 13:1)

Micah (Micah 1:1)

Micaiah (1 Kings 22:8)

Miriam (Exodus 15:20)

Moses (Deuteronomy 34:10)

Nahum (Nahum 1:1)

Nathan (2 Samuel 7:2)

Noah (Genesis 7:1)

Obadiah (Obadiah 1:1)

Oded (2 Chronicles 15:3)

Philip the Evangelist (Acts 8:26) Note: His four daughters also prophesied (Acts 21:8, 9)

Paul the Apostle (Acts of the Apostles 9:20)

Samuel (1 Samuel 3:20)

Shemaiah (1 Kings 12:22)

Silas (Acts 15:32)

Simeon Niger (Acts 13:1)

The Two Witnesses of Revelation 11:3

Urijah (Jeremiah 26:20)

Zechariah, son of Berechiah (Zechariah 1:1)

Zechariah, son of Jehoiada (2 Chronicles 24:20)

Zephaniah (Zephaniah 1:1)

 

Most common Quotation:

1. Isaiah 9:6

2. Isaiah 40:28

3. Genesis 1:1

4. John 3:16-17

5. Romans 3:23

6. Romans 6:23

7. Revelation 3:20

8. John 14:6

9. Ephesians 2:8,9

10. 2 Corinthians 5:17

11. Romans 8:28

12. Isaiah 40:30-31

13. Romans 8:38-39

14. Matthew 11:28-30

15. Psalm 27:1

16. Jeremiah 29:11

17. Hebrews 13:8

18. 2 Peter 3:9

19. Lamentations 3:22-23

20. 2 Corinthians 12:9

21. 2 Corinthians 4:18

22. Psalm 37:4,5

23. Proverbs 3:5,7

24. Philippians 4:13

25. Galatians 2:20

26. James 1:22

27. Colossians 3:23

28. 1 Corinthians 15:58

29. James 4:7

30. Luke 16:13

31. 1 John 4:7,8

32. Galatians 5:22-23

33. Hebrews 12:1-2

34. Acts 1:8

35. Romans 12:1-2

36. 1 Thessalonians 5:18

37. Psalm 19:14

38. Philippians 4:6,7

39. 2 Timothy 3:16

40. Psalm 119:105

41. Psalm 119:11

42. Hebrews 4:16

43. 1 John 1:9

44. James 5:16

45. 1 Corinthians 10:13

46. Micah 6:8

47. Matthew 25:40

48. Matthew 28:19-20

49. Matthew 5:16

50. Ephesians 6:12

 

Majore Scriptures:

Old testament: (39)

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers,Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel, 2 Samuel

1 Kings, 2 Kings

1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

New testament: (27)

Gospels: (4)

Matthew · Mark · Luke · John

Acts: (1)

Acts of the Apostles

Epistles: (21)

Romans

1 Corinthians · 2 Corinthians

Galatians · Ephesians

Philippians · Colossians

1 Thessalonians · 2 Thessalonians

1 Timothy · 2 Timothy

Titus · Philemon

Hebrews · James

1 Peter · 2 Peter

1 John · 2 John · 3 John

Jude

Apocalypse: (1)

Revelation

Jesus Christ

Main articles: Christian views of Jesus, Christology, and Jesus Christ in comparative mythology

The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God and the Messiah (Christ). The title "Messiah" comes from the Hebrew word masiah meaning anointed one. The Greek translation Christos is the source of the English word "Christ".

Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus' coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept. The core Christian belief is that through belief in and acceptance of the death and resurrection of Jesus, sinful humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.

While there have been many theological disputes over the nature of Jesus over the earliest centuries of Christian history, Christians generally believe that Jesus is God incarnate and "true God and true man" (or both fully divine and fully human). Jesus, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin. As fully God, he rose to life again. According to the Bible, "God raised him from the dead", he ascended to heaven, is "seated at the right hand of the Father" and will ultimately return [Acts 1:9-11] to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment and final establishment of the Kingdom of God.

According to the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born from the Virgin Mary. Little of Jesus' childhood is recorded in the canonical Gospels, however infancy Gospels were popular in antiquity. In comparison, his adulthood, especially the week before his death, is well documented in the Gospels contained within the New Testament. The Biblical accounts of Jesus' ministry include: his baptism, miracles, preaching, teaching, and deeds.

Parable of Jesus Crist:

"Notice how the flowers grow. They do not toil or spin. But I tell you, not even Solomon in all his splendor was dressed like one of them. If God so clothes the grass in the field that grows today and is thrown into the oven tomorrow, will he not much more provide for you, O you of little faith?" (Luke 12:27-28)

"Are not two sparrows sold for a small coin? Yet not one of them falls to the ground without your Father's knowledge." (Matthew 10:28-29)

When he saw the crowds, he went up to the mountain, and after he had sat down, his disciples came to him. He began to teach them, saying:

The Beatitudes

Blessed are the poor in spirit,

For theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

Blessed are they who mourn,

for they will be comforted.

Blessed are the meek,

for they will inherit the land.

Blessed are they who hunger and thirst for righteousness,

for they will be satisfied.

Blessed are the merciful,

for they will be shown mercy.

Blessed are the clean of heart,

for they will see God.

Blessed are the peacemakers,

for they will be called children of God.

Blessed are they who are persecuted for

the sake of righteousness,

for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

Worship

Justin Martyr described 2nd century Christian liturgy in his First Apology (c. 150) to Emperor Antoninus Pius, and his description remains relevant to the basic structure of Christian liturgical worship:

"And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need."

--- Justin Martyr

Denomination with population:

1. Catholicism - 1.2 billion

2. Protestantism - 600-800 million

3. Eastern Orthodoxy - 230 million

4. Anglicanism - 85 million

5. Oriental Orthodoxy - 82 million

6. Restorationism - 45 million

7. Unitarian Universalism - 0.6 million

8. Nestorianism - 0.6 million

Comparative Religion