Comparative religion for all human: By TM Kamal Pasha

 Comparative Religion For all Human: 

 

By TM Kamal Pasha   

Introduction: 

Judaism is a one of the oldest religions known to people. Judaism was born about 4000 years ago. Many famous people have been Jewish such as Moses, Jesus, Mahler, Marx, Freud, and Einstein. Judaism is a monotheistic religion, which means that Jewish people pray to only one G-d. There weren't too many religions like this when it originated which made Judaism very unique at the time. Most of the religions of that period were polytheistic, which means that they prayed to more than one G-d.

History:

The history of Jewish people has not been that easy. From the slavery in Egypt to the Holocaust in Europe, the Jewish people have lived a life filled with prejudice. It began with Abraham, the first Jewish person. It is Jewish belief that he made a covenant with G-d and was promised that he would be the father of a great nation. That nation became the Jewish people. Abraham and his sons and grandsons were called the patriarchs. They were Isaac, his son, and Jacob, his grandson. Jacobs favorite son Joseph was also an important part of the early history. It was because of Jacobs sons and their wrongdoings that Joseph ended up in Egypt, eventually leading many Jewish people into the land of Egypt. Moses was one of the most famous Jewish prophets. He led the Jewish people out of slavery, led them to Mount Sinai and received the Ten Commandments, a set of rules that people even today still follow. After Moses, the Jewish people had different leaders called judges, and then kings such as David and Solomon to guide them in the land called Israel. Jewish people lived in the land of Israel until 586BCE when they were exiled by the Babylonians. It wasn't until 1948, about 2000 years later, that Jewish people were able to return to that land.

Who is a Jew?

According to traditional Jewish Law, a Jew is anyone born of a Jewish mother or converted to Judaism in accordance with Jewish Law. American Reform Judaism and British Liberal Judaism accept the child of one Jewish parent (father or mother) as Jewish if the parents raise the child with a Jewish identity. All mainstream forms of Judaism today are open to sincere converts, although conversion has traditionally been discouraged since the time of the Talmud. The conversion process is evaluated by an authority, and the convert is examined on his or her sincerity and knowledge. Converts are given the name ben Abraham or bat Abraham, (son or daughter of Abraham).

 

Traditional Judaism maintains that a Jew, whether by birth or conversion, is a Jew forever. Thus a Jew who claims to be an atheist or converts to another religion is still considered by traditional Judaism to be Jewish. According to some sources, the Reform movement has maintained that a Jew who has converted to another religion is no longer a Jew, and the Israeli Government has also taken that stance after Supreme Court cases and statutes. However, the Reform movement has indicated that this is not so cut and dry, and different situations call for consideration and differing actions. For example, Jews who have converted under duress may be permitted to return to Judaism "without any action on their part but their desire to rejoin the Jewish community" and "A proselyte who has become an apostate remains, nevertheless, a Jew".

The question of what determines Jewish identity in the State of Israel was given new impetus when, in the 1950s, David Ben-Gurion requested opinions on mihu Yehudi ("who is a Jew") from Jewish religious

authorities and intellectuals worldwide in order to settle citizenship questions. This is still not settled, and occasionally resurfaces in Israeli politics.

 

The Ten Commandments:

1. You shall have no other Gods but me.

2. You shall not make for yourself any idol, nor bow down to it or worship it.

3. You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your God.

4. You shall remember and keep the Sabbath day holy.

5. Respect your father and mother.

6. You must not kill.

7. You must not commit adultery.

8. You must not steal.

9. You must not give false evidence against your neighbor. You must not be envious of your neighbor's goods.

10.You shall not be envious of his house nor his wife, nor anything that belongs to your neighbor.

 

The thirteen principle of faith:

The great codifier of Torah law and Jewish philosophy, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon ("Maimonides" also known as "The Rambam"), compiled what he refers to as the Shloshah Asar Ikkarim, the "Thirteen Fundamental Principles" of the Jewish faith, as derived from the Torah. Maimonides refers to these thirteen principles of faith as "the fundamental truths of our religion and its very foundations." The Thirteen Principles of Jewish faith are as follows:

1. Belief in the existence of the Creator, who is perfect in every manner of existence and is the Primary Cause of all that exists.

2. The belief in G-d's absolute and unparalleled unity.

3. The belief in G-ds non-corporeality, nor that He will be affected by any physical occurrences, such as movement, or rest, or dwelling.

4. The belief in G-ds eternity.

5. The imperative to worship G-d exclusively and no foreign false gods.

6. The belief that G-d communicates with man through prophecy.

7. The belief in the primacy of the prophecy of Moses our teacher.

8. The belief in the divine origin of the Torah.

9. The belief in the immutability of the Torah.

10. The belief in G-d's omniscience and providence.

11. The belief in divine reward and retribution.

12. The belief in the arrival of the Messiah and the messianic era.

13. The belief in the resurrection of the dead.

It is the custom of many congregations to recite the Thirteen Articles, in a slightly more poetic form, beginning with the words Ani Maamin--"I believe"--every day after the morning prayers in the synagogue.

 

Customs and Traditions:

The Jews have many customs and traditions. Among them are circumcision, bar or bat mitzvah, special rites and prayers to be said during a wedding and during death and mourning. Circumcision is done because of a Commandment by G-d to Abraham, as a sign of commitment of Jewish people. Bar or bat mitzvah is when a child reaches the age of maturity, 13 for boys, and 12 for girls, and is ready to become an adult their community. At that age, a child becomes responsible for his actions. During a Jewish wedding, the bride and groom get married under a special cloth called a "chuppah" or special canopy. Another tradition that is followed during a Jewish wedding is the breaking of a small glass at the end of the ceremony. This is to symbolize that even though this is a happy event, people should still remember the hardships that were faced before the Jewish people got to that place in time. During death and mourning, a Jewish family will sit shiva which is sitting in mourning for seven days after the death of a loved one. Some other customs are wearing a kippah on the head in a synagogue or wearing a tallit, a prayer shawl, while praying.

 

Major Prophets in Judaism:

A prophet is G-d's spokesman to the people Can be male or female, Jewish or gentile The Bible records 48 male prophets, 7 female and one gentile Daniel was not a prophet because he did not speak to the people.

Abraham: Gen 11:26 - 25:10

Isaac: Gen 21:1 - 35:29

Jacob: Gen 25:21 - 49:33

Moses: Ex. 2:1 - Deut. 34:5

Aaron: Ex. 4:14 - Num. 33:39

Joshua: Ex. 17:9 - 14, 24:13, 32:17 - 18, 33:11; Num. 11:28 - 29, 13:4 - 14:38; 27:18 - 27:23, Deut. 1:38, 3:28, 31:3, 31:7 -Joshua 24:29

Pinchas: Ex. 6:25; Num. 25:7-25:11; Num. 31:6; Josh. 22:13 - Josh. 24:33; Judges 20:28

ElkanahI: Samuel 1:1 - 2:20

Eli: I Samuel 1:9 - 4:18

Samuel: I Samuel 1:1 - I Samuel 25:1

Gad: I Sam 22:5; II Sam 24:11-19; I Chron 21:9-21:19, 29:29

Nathan: II Sam 7:2 - 17; 12:1 - 25.

David: I Sam 16:1 - I Kings 2:11

Solomon: II Sam 12:24; 1 Kings 1:10 - 11:43

Iddo: II Chron 9:29, 12:15, 13:22

Michaiah son of Imlah: I Kings 22:8-28; II Chron 18:7-27

Obadiah: I Kings 18; Obadiah

Ahiyah the Shilonite: I Kings 11:29-30; 12:15; 14:2-18; 15:29

Jehu son of Hanani: I Kings 16:1 - 7; II Chron 19:2; 20:34

Azariah son of Oded: II Chron 15

Jahaziel the Levite: II Chron 20:14

Eliezer son of Dodavahu: II Chron 20:37

Hosea: Hosea

Amos: Amos

Micah the Morashtite: Micah

Amoz: (the father of Isaiah)

Elijah: I Kings 17:1 - 21:29; II Kings 1:10-2:15, 9:36-37, 10:10, 10:17

Elisha: I Kings 19:16-19; II Kings 2:1-13:21

Jonah ben Amittai: Jonah

Isaiah: Isaiah

Joel: Joel

Nahum: Nahum

Habakkuk: Habakkuk

Zephaniah: Zephaniah

Uriah: Jeremiah 26:20-23

Jeremiah: Jeremiah

Ezekiel: Ezekiel

Shemaiah: I Kings 12:22-24; II Chron 11:2-4, 12:5-15

Barukh: Jeremiah 32, 36, 43, 45

Neriah: (father of Barukh)

Seraiah: Jeremiah 51:61-64

Mehseiah: (father of Neriah)

Haggai: Haggai

Zechariah: Zechariah

Malachi: Malachi

Mordecai Bilshan: Esther

Oded (father of Azariah)

Hanani (father of Jehu)

Female Prophets

Sarah: Gen 11:29 - 23:20

Miriam: Ex. 15:20-21; Num. 12:1-12:15, 20:1

Deborah: Judges 4:1 - 5:31

Hannah: I Sam 1:1 - 2:21

Abigail: I Sam 25:1 - 25:42

Huldah: II Kings 22:14-20

Esther: Esther

 

Why is Daniel Not a Prophet?

According to Judaism, Daniel is not one of the 55 prophets. His writings include visions of the future, which we believe to be true; however, his mission was not that of a prophet. His visions of the future were never intended to be proclaimed to the people; they were designed to be written down for future generations. Thus, they are Writings, not Prophecies, and are classified accordingly.

 

Major books:

Judaism has two types of books:

        A. Reveled book from god some in written form

        B. Written Torah, written by scholars   

A. Reveled Torah or law which is given to Moses (pbuh):

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

 

B. Written Torah or Tanakh:

This is a list of the books of Written Torah, in the order in which they appear in Jewish translations, with the Hebrew name of the book, a translation of the Hebrew name (where it is not the same as the English name), and English names of the books (where it is not the same as the Hebrew name). The Hebrew names of the first five books are derived from the first few words of the book. The text of each book is more or less the same in Jewish translations as what you see in Christian bibles, although there are some occasional, slight differences in the numbering of verses and there are some significant differences in the translations.

 

NEVI'IM (The Prophets):

Yehoshua (Joshua)

Shoftim (Judges)

Shmuel (I &II Samuel)

Melakhim (I & II Kings)

Yeshayah (Isaiah)

Yirmyah (Jeremiah)

Yechezqel (Ezekiel)

The Twelve (treated as one book):

Hoshea (Hosea)

Yoel (Joel)

Amos

Ovadyah (Obadiah)

Yonah (Jonah)

Mikhah (Micah)

Nachum

Chavaqquq (Habbakkuk)

Tzefanyah (Zephaniah)

Chaggai

Zekharyah (Zechariah)

Malakhi

KETHUVIM (The Writings):

Tehillim (Psalms)

Mishlei (Proverbs)

Iyov (Job)

Shir Ha-Shirim (Song of Songs)

Ruth

Eikhah (Lamentations)

Qoheleth (the author's name) (Ecclesiastes)

Esther

Daniel

Ezra & Nechemyah (Nehemiah) (treated as one book)

Divrei Ha-Yamim (The words of the days) (Chronicles)

Written Torah is often referred to as the Tanakh, which is an acrostic of Torah, Nevi'im and Ketuvim.

Comparative Religion