Comparative religion for all human: By TM Kamal Pasha

 Comparative Religion For all Human: 


By TM Kamal Pasha   


Great grandfather - Amr (Hashim)

Grandfather - Shaibatul Hamd (Abdul Muttalib)

Father - Abdullah

Mother - Amina

Birth: Makka,

Friday, 17th Rabiul Awwal 570 C.E.



He was the founder of the Quraysh trade caravans. He signed an agreement between the

Quraysh and the ruler of Syria which enabled goods to be exchanged freely between their

two countries. This encouraged more rulers to participate and it made Makka a leading

trade centre.

Once there was a famine in Arabia and Amr took all his

belongings to Syria exchanging them for flour and

dried bread. He also killed all his camels and fed his

people bread and meat until the famine was over. This

earned him the name Hashim - one who breaks bread.

At that time also in Arabia there was a custom whereby those who could not afford to feed

themselves would leave Makka and go to the desert where they would live in a tent until

they died of hunger and thirst.

The Quraysh thought that was better than begging. Hashim changed this , introducing a

plan whereby one rich family was united with one poor family. The two helped each other

in trading and thus both gained.

Hashim died in Syria. He had 5 sons - two of whom were Shaybatul Hamd (Abdul Muttalib)

, and Asad (Imam Ali's grandfather).



Shaybatul Hamd's mother was called Salma. One of the conditions of her marriage with

Hashim had been that she return to her parents at the time of childbirth. When childbirth

approached she left Makka to go to her parents in Yathrib (Madina). Her son was born

there .

He had a patch of white hair on the front of his head and was thus called Shayba - one with

white hair. As a child his manners were so good that he was called Shaybatul Hamd - the

one with white hair who is praiseworthy. His father died shortly after Shayba’s birth.

A person from Makka once on his visit to Yathrib (Madina) saw a boy who was very good at

archery calling himself the son of the chief of Makka. When he returned to Makka he told

Muttalib (Hashim's brother) about the boy. Muttalib went to Yathrib and found that the

boy was his brother Hashim's son. With Salma's permission he took Shaybatul Hamd to


When the people of Makka saw Muttalib enter the town with a young boy they assumed

that he was Muttalib's slave and called him Abdul Muttalib - slave of Muttalib. Although

Muttalib explained that he was his nephew the name stuck.

He grew up to be the chief of Makka and was known as Sayyidul Bat'ha (Makka was known

as Bat'ha).

He was also known as Mutimut Tayyar (feeder of birds)

because besides feeding the pilgrims who came to visit the

Ka'ba he used to feed the birds and animals around the Ka'ba


He introduced many systems which were later introduced in

Islam e.g.

a) He gave away to charity one fifth of treasure that he found.

b) He did not let his family drink intoxicants - alcohol, drugs, ......

c) He cut off the fingers of thieves.

d) He discouraged the tawaaf of the Ka'ba without clothes.

e) He stopped marriages between mahram.

f) He was the first person to make and fulfil 'nadhr'

g) He discouraged the burying of baby girls alive.

h) He set the fine of 10 camels for killing a person by mistake.

The well of Zam Zam had been closed by the tribe of Banu Jurhum who had been chased

out of Makka a long time before. Abdul Muttalib dreamt of it's position and re-dug it

making it serviceable again. He also found treasure in it - two gold deer, some swords and

battle armour. It was then that he gave away one fifth of it.

The king of Yemen had built a beautiful church decorated with the best of everything. He

wanted people to visit Yemen instead of going to Makka to visit the Ka’ba. In spite of all his

efforts people still preferred Makka.

He decided the only thing to do was to destroy the

Ka’ba. He chose the bravest of his soldiers called

Abraha to take a large army and an elephant and

destroy the Ka’ba.

On their way to Makka, the army of Abraha destroyed

everything in their path. They also stole hundreds of

camels including some belonging to Abdul Muttalib.

Abdul Muttalib knew that Abraha and his army were

coming to destroy the Ka’ba. He went to the Ka’ba and prayed earnestly:

“O Allah! save Your house and do not let them destroy it.!!”

Then he went to see Abraha and asked for the return of his camels. Abraha was shocked!

“I have come to destroy the Ka’ba and all you are worried about is your camels?”

Abdul Muttalib replied:

“The camels belong to me, so I ask for their return. The Ka’ba belongs to Allah and He will

look after it himself.”

When Abraha heard this he returned the camels and marched forward to destroy the

Ka’ba. Allah sent a flock of birds who flew over the army and pelted them with pieces of

baked clay which killed the elephant and the soldiers.

All except Abraha were destroyed and he rushed back to Yemen to tell the King what had

happened. A single bird followed Abraha.

“What sort of amazing birds were these?” asked the furious king. Abraha pointed up

showing the bird. Just then the bird pelted Abraha and he died instantly in front of the


Allah narrates this incident in Suratul Feel.

Abdul Muttalib was a great support to the Prophet (SAW) and died at the age of 82 years

leaving 12 sons and 5 daughters.



The Christian priests had a shirt that belonged to Prophet Yahya (AS) They knew from their

scriptures that when the father of the last Prophet would be born, blood would appear on

the shirt.

They knew therefore when Hazrat Abdullah (AS) was born and were searching for him.

He was his father's favourite son.

Abdul Muttalib dreamt that Abdullah should be married to Amina daughter of Wahab.

They were married a year before the 'Year of the Elephant'.

When Sayyida Amina (AS) was pregnant, Abdullah went with a trade caravan to Syria. On

the way back he fell ill and died before the Prophet (SAW) was born. He is buried in


He left some camels, goats and a slave girl called Umme Ayman which were given to the

Prophet (SAW)

Sayyida Amina was very sad after her husband died. When the Prophet (SAW) was six

years old she too died on the way back from visiting Abdullah's grave. She is buried in

Abwa, a place between Makka and Madina.



Imam Ja'fer As-Sadiq (AS) has said that Allah created the light of Prophet Muhammad

(SAW) before any of his creations.

He was born in the year of the Elephant (570 C.E.) in the month of Rabi ul Awwal. It was

just after sunrise on Friday the seventeenth.

Shaytan who had been previously allowed to visit the heavens suddenly found that he

could not go.

He went to the Ka'ba disguised as a little bird and saw angels celebrating. Jibrail saw him

and recognised him. He was asked to leave but asked Jibrail to tell him what had

happened. Jibrail told him that the last of the Prophets; Muhammad (SAW) was born.

Shaytan left weeping and wailing. It is said that he wept for forty days.

It is also said that all the idols fell on their faces and the palace of Kisra who was emperor

of Persia started shaking and had cracks in it.

Abdul Muttalib saw a white cloud shadowing the house of Sayyida Amina (AS) and ran to

inquire. He was told of the birth of Muhammad (SAW)

Inspired by Allah, Abdul Muttalib named the child Muhammad. When asked why; he

replied that he wished that Muhammad should be praised in the heavens and in the earth

(Muhammad means one who is praiseworthy).

It is said that Sayyida Amina (AS) had named him Ahmed before Abdul Muttalib called him




His life can be divided into four stages

1. The first forty years from birth to be’that (when the first revelation of Qur’an was


2. Announcement of Prophethood and first 13 years in Makka.

3. After Hijra to Madina and 10 years there upto death

4. From wafat to Qiyama where he left behind the legacy of the Qur’an and the




This period was spent preparing the grounds of declaration of Prophet hood. He had to be

able to establish his credentials i.e. his excellent character. In fact he established that he

was both Truthful (Sadiq) and Trustworthy (Amin). The people of Arabia although being a

tribal community accepted him for his excellent Akhlaq.



He was born in Makka on the 17th Rabiul Awwal in the Year of the Elephant.

His father Hazrat Abdullah had died before he was born and as was customary, he was sent

to the countryside. The Prophet spent 5 years of his life in the desert among his wet nurse

- Halima's people (tribe of Bani Sa'd). During this time Halima took him to visit his mother

twice or thrice and then eventually returned him to her.

Sayyida Amina decided that she would take the Prophet to visit the grave of his father

Hazrat Abdullah in Yathrib. With Umme Ayman they went and on the way back to Makka,

Sayyida Amina died at a place called Abwa where she is buried. He was then looked after

by his grandfather Abdul Muttalib who then died a few years later and this hurt the

Prophet (SAW) greatly.

All these tragedies in his younger life prepared him for the hardships to come.



Abu Talib took the guardianship of the Prophet after Abdul Muttalib. (He was Abdullah's

brother and Imam Ali's father).

He showed his bravery, and strength in the battles of Fujjar (unjust battles).

He showed his justice and leadership in the Covenant of the Youths (Hilful Fuzul). This was

drawn to ensure the welfare of the oppressed.

He worked as a shepherd for the people of Makka.

Abu Talib took him when he went to trade in Syria and Yemen and his skills were noted by

all. Sayyida Khadija on hearing of his trade skills employed the Prophet to accompany her

trade caravans as her manager. The first trip proved more successful than any other that

Sayyida Khadija had known. She asked her friend Nafisa to ask the Prophet whether he would marry her.

He agreed and they were married in 595 CE. They were very happy and had two sons - Qasim &

Abdullah (also called Tayyib & Tahir) - both of whom died in infancy and one daughter,

Sayyida Fatima Zahra (AS) Prophet Muhammad (SAW) used to spend a lot of time in the cave of

Hira on the mountain of light meditating and praying.




613-622 CE

As soon as the Prophet (SAW) announced that there are no gods but Allah, he was rejected

and persecuted by the Quraysh. He remained the same person - with the excellent akhlaq

but what had changed is that he declared his belief in Allah.


When he was forty he got the first revelations in the cave Hira on the mountain of Light

where he used to meditate. It was brought by angel Jibrail and it was the first five ayaat of

Suratul Alaq (96)

"Read in the name of your Lord who created (all);

He created man from a clot of blood;

Read! Your Lord is the most bountiful,

Who by the pen taught man what he did not know".

It was the 27th of Rajab (The day of Be’that) in the 40th year of the life of the Prophet. He

was busy in remembrance of Allah in his usual place in the cave of Hira.

The first person who the Prophet told of this was his wife, Sayyida Khadija. She

immediately testified to his Prophet hood and gave him her full support.

The Prophet began the preaching of his mission to a limited circle for the first three years.

Then he was asked by Allah to invite his near relations to Islam.

"And warn your nearest relatives.”Suratush Shu'ara 26:214

The Prophet (SAW) arranged a meal inviting 40 of his relations. This is known as 'Da'watul

Dhul Ashira'. He invited them towards Allah and introduced himself as the Messenger of

Allah. He then asked thrice : "Which one of you will support me so that he may become my brother, wasi and successor

after me?" Each time Imam Ali (AS) who was 13 years old at the time stood up and said:

"O Prophet of Allah ! I am prepared to support you !"

The Prophet (SAW) held Imam Ali's (AS) hand high and told his audience that Ali (AS) would

be his successor and they should listen to him and follow him. The others who were

present taunted Abu Talib saying he would now have to take orders from his son. The

meeting ended .

After this he began preaching openly to the Quraysh who reacted violently. The Prophet

and his followers were constantly harassed. The Prophet was not allowed to worship in

the Ka'ba. Thorns were strewn in his path, dirt and filth were thrown at him, he was

accused of being a madman, magician and poet and was taunted and insulted.

His faithful companions too were tortured. Some were placed on the hot sands and heavy

stones were put on their chests, nooses were put round their necks and they were dragged

in the streets. The first martyr of Islam was Sumayya, the mother of one of the

companions of the Prophet, Ammar Yasir.

The Prophet had about 100 followers and physical cruelty made life unbearable in Makka.

The Prophet advised his followers to got to Abyssinia under the leadership of Jaffer Tayyar.

This was the first Hijra in Islam (in the fifth year of Prophet hood) and 15 people took part

in it. The Prophet then advised a second Hijra.

When the Quraysh found out that the Muslims were living peacefully in Abyssinia, they

sent expensive gifts to the ministers of the King of Abyssinia to bribe them. Then they sent

their representative Amr Al-Aas who visited King Najashi (of Abyssinia) asking for the

return of the Muslims claiming that they had invented a new religion. The ministers loudly

supported the request.

King Najashi asked whether the Muslims had killed anyone, stolen property or committed

any crimes. Amr replied that their only crime was the invention of a new religion. King

Najashi called Ja'fer bin Abu Talib to the court and asked him why the Muslims had

abandoned the religion of their forefathers and started a new religion.

King Najashi was impressed with what Ja'fer said and asked him to recite some ayaat from

the Qur'an. Ja'fer recited ayaat from Suratu Maryam which moved the King and his


Frustrated that they could not overcome the Prophet, the Quraysh boycotted the families

of Hashim and Muttalib, having no contact with them nor allowing food or drink to reach

to them.

Abu Talib had no choice but to take them to a valley belonging to him called Shib-e-Abu

Talib. For three long years from Muharram in the 7th year after declaration of Prophet

hood they stayed there under so much hardship that at times they lived

on leaves and grass.

They came out when the Prophet told Abu Talib that the agreement

signed by all the Quraysh to boycott them had been eaten up by insects

and only the words "In the name of our Lord..." remained. Abu Talib

went and told this to the Quraysh who found it to be true and had no

choice but to stop their boycott.

Shortly after, Abu Talib and Sayyida Khadija both died and this grieved

the Prophet so much that he called the year Aamul Huzn (The year of


After the death of Abu Talib and Sayyida Khadija the persecution against the Prophet by

the Makkans increased and he decided to go to Taif hoping the people there might listen.

But there he was laughed at and driven away. Grieved he returned to Makka.

The news of the preaching of the Prophet had spread and a group of about 20 Christians

from Najaran came to Makka and accepted Islam. Another group of 6 people came from

Yathrib (Madina) and accepted Islam. This was in the 11th year after the declaration of

Prophet hood.

The next year 12 people from Yathrib came and took a pledge (promise) known as the First

Pledge Of Aqaba (Aqaba means mountain pass and the pledge was taken in a mountain

pass outside Makka). The pledge was besides other things not to associate anything with

Allah and obey the Prophet in everything. They returned to Yathrib (Madina) and wrote to

the Prophet asking him to send someone to Madina to teach them Islam. The Prophet

(SAW) sent Mus'ab bin Umayr and Ibn Umme Maqtum to do tableegh.



"Glory be to Him who made His servant go by night from Masjidul Haram to Masjidul Aqsa

(the furthest mosque), whose surroundings We have blessed that We might show him

some of our signs. He is all Hearing and all Seeing" Suratu Bani Israel 17:1

In the 12th year of Prophet hood Allah honoured the Prophet with a visit to the heavens. It

was the night of the 27th of Rajab, and the Prophet was at the house of Umme Haani

binte Abu Talib. Jibrail came and told him that he was to accompany him on a unique

journey on an animal called Buraq.

The Prophet first went to the Ka'ba from where he was taken on Buraq to see Madina

(where he was to live), Mount Sinai (where Allah spoke to Musa (AS)), Bethlehem (where

Isa (AS) was born) and then to Baytul Muqaddas (Jerusalem) where the Prophet led

prayers for a lot of other Prophets.

He was then taken to the heavens. The Masjidul Aqsa (furthest mosque) mentioned in the

above Qur'anic aya is the mosque in the heavens which is directly above the Ka'ba.

He saw the solar system and talked to the souls of the other Prophets, he saw the places of

blessing and punishment and continued until he reached Sidratul Muntaha' (a tree in

Janna). Jibrail said then that he could not step further then this. Sidratul Muntaha is said

to be the symbol marking the last limit of heavenly knowledge beyond which no one could


On his return from the journey the Prophet passed a caravan of people who had lost their

camel and were looking for it. The Prophet described the caravan exactly and it was the

same one which entered Makka a little while later.



The tableegh of the two people sent by the Prophet to Yathrib was so effective that in the

same year 70 people came to Makka from Yathrib including the 12 who took the first

pledge and all accepted Islam and invited the prophet to Yathrib. This pledge is called the

Second Pledge of Aqaba.

When the Makkans found out that Islam was spreading in Yathrib they were very angry.

They planned to kill the Prophet by choosing one person from each tribe to attack him

collectively so no one person or tribe could be blamed.

The Prophet came to know of this and was commanded by Allah to leave for Yathrib. He

left Imam Ali (AS) sleeping in his bed (when Imam Ali (AS) found out he was to be the

ransom for the Prophet's life he did a sijda of shukr. It is the first one in Islam). The

Prophet walked out of the house whilst his attackers were there without being noticed by

throwing towards them a handful of dust on which the following aya of the Qur'an had

been recited. "And We have made before them a barrier and a barrier behind them, then We have

covered them over so they do not see."Suratu Yaseen 36:9

The Prophet went to the Mountain of Thaur (about 5 miles from Makka) accompanied by

Abu Bakr. When at dawn the attackers entered the Prophet's house they were shocked and

furious at finding Imam Ali (AS) in the Prophet's bed.

Immediately they started looking for the Prophet and came right up to the mouth of

the cave in which he was hiding. They did not look in because a spider had woven its

cobweb round the entrance and a pair of pigeons had built their nest right at the mouth of the cave and

neither was the web broken nor the eggs disturbed.

They left Makka on the 1st night of Rabiul Awwal reaching the cave of Thaur before dawn;

remaining there until the 4th of Rabiul Awwal and then leaving for Yathrib. They reached

Quba (2 miles south of Yathrib) on the 8th or 12th of Rabiul Awwal.

At Quba the Prophet laid the foundation stone for the Mosque of Quba which has been

mentioned in the Qur'an as the first mosque founded on piety.

They entered the city of Yathrib on Friday the 16th of Rabiul Awwal (2nd of July 622 C.E.).

This was the date from which dates the Islamic year.



1-11AH (622 – 632 CE)

Change of name of Yathrib:

The name of the city was changed to Madinatun Nabi, the city of the Prophet.

Now, it is generally known as Madinatul Munawwara (The lighted city) or simply


Building of the masjid:

On arrival, a masjid was constructed at the place the Prophet's camel stopped and let

the Prophet (SAW) descend. The land belonged to two orphans from whom the Prophet (SAW)

bought the land for 10 dinars. The construction of the masjid was shared between the Muslims.

Even the Prophet (SAW) had his share of work.. It was built with clay bricks and mud, with the trunks

of palm trees as pillars and a roof of palm leaves. Adjoining rooms were built on one side for the Prophet

(SAW) and his family and on the other side rooms for the homeless.


Brotherhood between Ansars & Muhajirs:

The Prophet established brotherhood between the Ansars (people of Madina) and

Muhajirs (immigrants from Makka). The Ansars volunteered to share half of everything

they had with their Muhajir brothers.

"Those who believed and migrated and strive in the cause of God with their persons and

belongings and those who sheltered and helped them; they are indeed brothers to one

another" Suratul Anfaal 8:72

By this method the Prophet ensured unity of the Muslims.

The Quraysh were very angry about the establishing of Islam in Madina and the Prophets'

emigration there. They gathered to attack the Muslims and several battles and skirmishes

occurred around Madina.


Change of Qibla:

When the order of salaa was first revealed, the qibla was Baytul Muqaddas in Jeruselam.

This was the practise in Makka and continued for 17 months after hijra.

One day when the Prophet was leading salaa, he was ordered to change qibla to the Ka'ba

after completing two rakaats of the Dhuhr salaa. He at once changed direction without the

need of a compass. The masjid where the order came is called Masjid Dhul Qiblatayn (The

masjid with two qiblas).

"Many a time We have seen you turn your face towards the heavens. We will make you

turn towards a qibla that will please you.”Suratul Baqara 2:144



"And indeed Allah assisted you at Badr when you were weak, so be careful (to your duty)

to Allah so that you may be of the thankful ones. When you said to the believers 'Does it

not suffice you that your Lord should assist you with three thousand angels sent down.. "

Suratu Aali Imran 3:122

The battle of Badr was the first of the great battles of Islam.

When the Prophet heard the news that there was a trade caravan going to Syria from

Makka under the leadership of Abu Sufyan he sent two men to gather information about it.

It was discovered that it was a large caravan in which all the Makkans had shares. The

Quraysh had decided to put all their savings into it and use the profits on arms, horses and

other items of war to use against the Muslims.The news was disturbing. The Prophet (SAW)

left Madina with 313 men, 2 horses and 70 camels to go to Badr which was a stopping point

for the caravans. The Quraysh had confiscated all the property of all the Muslims who had left

Makka for Madina and the Prophet therefore decided to confiscate the property of the caravan in


Abu Sufyan feared an attack from the Muslims and sent a messenger to Makka telling

them of his fears. On receiving the message, an army of 1000 men, 100 horses and 700

camels under the leadership of Abu Jahl left Makka to go to Badr.

Meanwhile Abu Sufyan took a different route back to Makka avoiding Badr. Once he was

back in Makka he called Abu Jahl back but Abu Jahl was too proud and wanted to crush the

Muslims with his large army.

The two armies met at Badr on 17th Ramadhan 2 A.H.

In the beginning as per Arab custom, single combat (one to one) took place. The famous

Quraysh warriors Utbah, Shayba and Walid came to challenge three 'Ansars' from Madina.

The Quraysh refused to fight any of the 'Ansars', demanding their 'equals' and so the

Prophet (SAW) sent Ubayda, Hamza and Imam Ali (AS) The three Kuffar were killed

(Ubayda was hurt). The Quraysh got disturbed and began attacking en masse.

In the thick of the battle the Prophet prayed to Allah. In Surat ul Anfal Allah gave the

answer: "When you asked for help from your Lord, He answered you. Indeed I will aid you

with a thousand of the angels in rows after rows".Suratul Anfal 8:9

The enemies got frightened and began to retreat. The skill of Imam Ali (AS), the other

Muslim soldiers and the sight of so many angels struck terror in the enemies hearts.

70 Kuffar were killed including their leader Abu Jahl. Imam Ali (AS) killed 36 of them. 14

Muslims were martyred.

70 prisoners were taken by the Muslims. The prisoners were treated with kindness and

some became Muslims. In later days some of the prisoners said:

"Blessed be the men of Madina, they made us ride whilst they walked, they gave us wheat

and bread to eat when there was little of it contenting themselves with plain dates".

The rich prisoners paid ransom and were set free. Others were asked to gain their

freedom by teaching 10 Muslims to read and write.



The Quraysh wanting to avenge their dead in the battle of Badr gathered together a large

force-(700 armoured men, 3000 camel soldiers, and a cavalry of 200 men & group of foot

soldiers) to attack the Muslims. The battle was fought at Uhud (3 miles from Madina) on

the 7th of Shawwal 3 A.H.

Hind, the wife of Abu Sufyan hired a slave called Wahshi to specifically kill either the

Prophet (SAW) or Imam Ali (AS) or Hazrat Hamza (brother of the Prophet’s father) to

avenge the death of her father and brother who were killed at Badr. Hazrat Hamza was

killed and later his body was mutilated by her.

The Makkans were losing and falling back. The Muslims thought the war was already won

and started collecting the war booty. The archers who were guarding the mountain pass

also left their posts although they had strict orders from the Prophet (SAW) not to leave

their posts.

One of the Kuffar, Khalid bin Walid saw a gap in the mountain pass behind the Muslims

and got some of his men together to attack the Muslims from behind taking them by

surprise. In the confusion a cry went up that the Prophet had been killed. This threw the

Muslims into further confusion. Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman fled to the mountains.

"When you ran off without even glancing either side even though the Prophet was calling

you back”. Suratu Aali Imran 3:152

"Indeed those who ran away on the day when the two armies met (Uhud), must have been

made to slip by Shaytan on account of some of their (sinful) actions; but indeed Allah has

pardoned them, He is Forgiving". Suratu Aali Imraan 3:155

Imam Ali (AS) continued to defend the Prophet. A voice was heard

from the sky which said: There is no brave soldier except Ali,

there is no sword except Dhulfikar, This was the sword given to Imam

Ali (AS) by the Prophet (SAW), 70 Muslims were martyred.

With a victory within their grasps the Muslims suffered a heavy blow. The battle created

serious difficulty for the Muslims. It encouraged the Jews and other tribes living outside

Madina to attack the Muslims.



The Jews of Madina (who did not like the spread of Islam there and had been sent out of

Madina by the Prophet for breaking their agreement of living in peace with the Muslims)

got together with the Quraysh of Makka and got together with many other tribes to fight

the Muslims. Under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, an army of 10,000 marched to Madina.

It was Dhulqa’da of 5 A.H.

On hearing the news of their coming the Prophet consulted his companions and Salman Al-

Farsi advised the digging of a ditch around Madina. The enemies had never seen anything

like it and camped outside for 24 to 27 days. A few of the Quraysh managed to cross the

ditch but were killed, the bravest of them by Imam Ali (AS) The Muslims were running out

of food and the enemies were getting restless with the cold and the rain.

The Prophet prayed for victory. A storm came which uprooted the enemies tents and

terrified them. They all fled the first of them being Abu Sufyan who was so upset that he

tried to ride his camel without untying the ropes.

"O you who believe! Remember the favours of Allah to you when an army came against

you and We sent a wind against them and forces that you did not see. But Allah sees all

that you do. Suratul Ahzab 33:9



The Prophet decided to perform the pilgrimage to the Ka'ba which until then had been

denied to the Muslims. 1,400 Muslims accompanied him and carrying no weapons except

their swords and wearing their Ihram and taking 70 camels for sacrificing they went

towards Makka.

They camped 10 miles outside Makka at Hudaibiya and the Prophet sent a messenger to

ask the Makkans for permission to enter. The Quraysh refused even when the Prophet

said they had come for a pilgrimage and not to fight. Uthman bin Affan (nephew of Abu

Sufyan) was sent by the Prophet to talk to Abu Sufyan, the leader of the Quraysh. He was

told he could perform the Hajj alone but the rest of the Muslims would not be allowed. He

refused to take the offer. When he did not return the Muslims feared him dead.

The Prophet said there was a possibility of a battle now, so he took a promise (pledge)

from the Muslims saying that they would support him even if faced with death.

The pledge was taken under an Acacia tree and is known as the pledge of Ridhwan.

"Indeed Allah was well pleased with the believers when they pledged their allegiance to

you under the tree. He knew what was in their hearts so he sent down peace on them and

rewarded them with an immediate victory". Suratul Fath 48:18

Soon afterwards Uthman returned safe. With him was Suhail bin Amr who was sent by the

Quraysh to settle the matter. As a result a treaty was signed by the Muslims and the




1. The Muslims should return to Madina without performing Hajj.

2. They could return next year for a maximum of 3 days.

3. They should not bring any arms except a sword which was sheathed.

4. There would be no war between the Muslims and the Quraysh for 10 years.

5. If a Makkan visited Madina without the permission of his tribe he would be sent back

to Makka, but if a Muslim from Madina visited Makka without permission he would not

be allowed to return.

6. This treaty would also apply to the allies and friends of either party.

After 3 days at Hudaibiya the Muslims returned to Madina. On the way back Surah Al-Fath

(The Victory) was revealed which showed the victory of the Treaty although at the time it

seemed against the Muslims. The treaty brought welcomed peace and in the next 2 years

more people became Muslims than in the previous 19 years since the declaration of

Prophet hood.



The peace given by the treaty of Hudaibiya allowed the Prophet to send the message of

Islam to the countries near Arabia. letters were sent to Heraculis (Byzantine Emperor),

Kisra Parviz (king of Persia), King of Egypt and Abyssinia, the chief of Yemen and the chief

of Syria.

Heraculis received the message with honour also sending gifts to the Prophet. the king of

Persia however was enraged and tore the letter to pieces. The Syrian chief put the Muslim

messenger to death and this became the cause of the conflict with the Christians resulting

in the Battles of Moota and Tabuk. The king of Abyssinia accepted Islam and also made

arrangements for the return of Jaffar Tayyar and other Muslims to Madina.



"Allah had promised you many gains which you will take; so He gave this soon enough to

you and withheld the hands of men from you that it may serve as a sign for the believers,

and guide you on the straight path”. Suratul Fath - 48:20

The Jews who were sent out of Madina had settled in Khayber (80 miles from Madina).

They had built 7 strong forts (Khayber means a fort). The fort called Qamus was the

strongest of them. They were constantly plotting to attack the Muslims.

The Prophet decided to stop them before they destroyed the Muslims. By the middle of

Muharram 7 A.H. the Prophet with 1'400 Muslims had surrounded all the forts. In the

course of a month all the forts were defeated except Qamus.

After giving the standard (flag to lead battle) to both Umar ibn Khattab and Abu Bakr ibn

Abi Qahafa who returned unsuccessful the Prophet gave it to Imam Ali (AS) who killed the

bravest of the Jewish warriors Marhab and tore off the gate of the fort enabling the

Muslims to enter. The Jews inside the fort cried out for peace and the Prophet allowed

them to peace and protection on the basis that they pay a tax equal to half the produce of

their lands.

On the day of the victory of Khayber the Muslims who had gone to Abyssinia under the

leadership of Jaffer Tayyar returned home and for the Prophet it was an occasion of double



After the battle of Khayber the prophet sent Imam Ali (AS) to a Jewish tribe who lived in

Fadak. They agreed to accept the same conditions that the Jews of Khayber had without

any battle i.e. in return for protection they would give half of the produce of their lands to

the Prophet. According to Islamic rules the lands got through war belong to the Muslims

but the land given without war belong to the Prophet. Fadak therefore belonged to the

Prophet and he gave it as a gift to his daughter Sayyida Fatima Zahra (AS).



"When there comes the help of Allah and the victory; And you see men entering the

religion of Allah in groups. So, glorify your Lord and seek His forgiveness. Indeed He

accepts Tawba. Suratun Nasr 110:2-4

One of the conditions of the treaty of Hudaibiya was that there would be no fighting

between the Muslims and the Quraysh and their respective allies. the allies of the Quraysh

broke their agreement by attacking an ally of the Muslims.

The Prophet marched with 10'000 men and camped a short way away from Makka. He

entered Makka on Friday, 20th Ramadhan 8 A.H. almost unopposed. He broke all the idols

in the Ka'ba and then ordered Bilal to give adhan.

"Truth has come and falsehood has vanished; and falsehood is certainly a thing vanishing..

Suratu Bani Israil 17:81


He then gave a sermon after which he declared :

"I shall speak to you as Yusuf spoke to his brothers.

There is no reproach against you today, God will forgive. He is the most merciful and

compassionate".Suratu Yusuf 12:92

Makka was conquered with no house destroyed and none hurt. With Imam Ali (AS) on the

Prophet’s shoulders, the Ka’ba was cleaned of all the idols that were housed init.

The result of this action saw many enter the religion and Surah An-Nasr was

revealed. Messengers were then sent to the neighbouring tribes calling them with

peace and goodwill to Islam.

"(O Muhammad) Allah who has

commanded you to follow the guidance

of the Qur'an will certainly return you

victoriously to your place of birth". Suratul Qasas 28:85



"To those that argue with you concerning Jesus after the knowledge you have received say

: Come, let us gather our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and

yourselves . We will pray together and call down the curse of Allah on every liar ."

Suratu Aali Imran 3:61

When real arguments fail to produce the desired effect, then to wish for the intervention

of Allah’s judgement in order to sift the right from wrong; is Mubahila.

In the year 9 A.H. Prophet Muhammad (SAW) wrote to the heads of different tribes and

countries of the world inviting them to Islam.

One of the letters was written to the Christian community of Najran, a territory made up of

72 villages situated on the borders of Hijaz and Yemen. They had a very big church which

they regarded as equal to the Ka'ba. The three leaders of the Christian community were

Aqib, Abdul Masih, & Abu Harith.

Abu Harith wanted all the people to accept Islam but his friends did not like the idea. It was

decided that a group of Christian leaders would go to Madina to discuss the issue with the

prophet (SAW) himself. Sixty of the most important leaders were chosen to go.

They came to Madina richly dressed with gold rings and silken clothes. The Prophet (SAW)

did not see it proper even to return their greetings and Imam Ali (AS) asked them to come

to see the Prophet (SAW) after they had changed their clothes to something simpler. They

took his advice and were warmly welcomed by the Prophet (SAW) They were put up in one

part of the mosque where they were allowed to perform their prayers comfortably.

They asked the Prophet (SAW) what he though of Jesus and he said:

"He was a human being created by God and was a prophet ."

"Have you ever seen any child born in this world without a father?" the Christian leaders


The Prophet (SAW) replied using the aya of Qur'an:

"Jesus is like Adam in the sight of Allah. He created him from dust and then said to him 'be'

and he was "Suratu Aali Imran 3:59

If Jesus had a right to be called the son of God just because there was no father than Adam

deserved the title more as he had no father nor mother.

The Christians could not answer to this argument , but they still continued in their belief

and continued to argue. Then the aya of Qur'an 3:61 (above) was revealed to the Prophet

inviting the Christians to a Mubahila where the curse of Allah would be on the liars.

The Christians accepted the challenge and went back to where they were staying. Abu

Harith advised them; telling them that if the Prophet (SAW) brought warriors and officers

to the field of Mubahila the his claim to Prophet hood was untrue; but if he brought his

children and dear ones than it would mean that he was a true prophet.

Next day at the appointed hour the Prophet (SAW) arrived at the place where Mubahila

was going to take place with Imam Husayn (AS) in his arms, Imam Hasan (AS) holding his

other hand and followed by Bibi Fatima (AS) and Imam Ali (AS) He had told them that when

he raised his hands in prayer they were to say 'Ameen'(So be it).

The Christians watched the Prophet (SAW) and his Ahlul bayt walking towards the

appointed place. Abu Harith asked a local person who the people were who were walking

with the Prophet (SAW) He was told of their names and their relationship with the Prophet


Abu Harith told his colleagues:

"I see such faces that if they raise their hands in supplication and pray to God that the

biggest mountain may be moved from its place, the same will happen immediately. We

should in no circumstance engage in a Mubahila with these sacred people because it is

possible that, not even one Christian may remain alive on the face of the earth ."

Everyone accepted his advice. They gave up the Mubahila and a treaty was signed whereby

the people of Najran would supply the Islamic government 2,000 garments every year , the

price of each which shall not be more than 40 dirhams.



Since the time when Prophet Ibrahim (AS) had built the Holy Ka'ba, it had been a place of

worship. Over the years, this worship had deteriorated into strange and undesirable

practices. People used to dance naked around the Holy Ka'ba, and they had put idols inside


Even after the conquest of Makka when these idols were broken, the people did not know

how to perform the Hajj ceremonies properly. The Prophet (SAW) therefore performed

Hajj in 10 A.H, so that the people would remain in no doubt as to how it should be done.

He could also instruct the people about the boundaries of Mina and Arafaat and teach

them about the times of departure from these places.

In Dhulqa’da he announced that he was going to perform the Hajj that year.

Thousands gathered outside Madina awaiting the departure of the Prophet (SAW).

The Prophet (SAW) appointed Abu Dajana as his representative in Madina and proceeded

toward Makka taking with him 60 animals for sacrifice.

At Zil Hulayfa, in the mosque of Shajara, he put on his Ihram.

At Arafat, the Prophet (SAW) whilst mounted on his camel, delivered his famous and

historical speech to the thousands of people who had gathered. He addressed the people

and went through a summary of his teachings to them. He repeated all the major and

minor elements of Islamic principles so that there could be no doubt left in their minds.

When he finished he offered his noon and afternoon prayers with 100,000 men.

The Prophet (SAW) then completed the Hajj. This Hajj is known as Hajjatul Wida (the Farewell Hajj)

because it was the last Hajj that the Prophet (SAW) performed in his life. During this Hajj he

demonstrated every feature of the ceremony, so that there could be no confusion later.

On Thursday 18th Dhulhijja 10 A.H. The returning caravan of Hajis reached Johfa. On it’s

borders is a pond (called Ghadeer in Arabic). The place is called Ghadeer Khum because of

it’s location.

Jibrail brought a message for the Prophet (SAW):

“O Prophet! Deliver what has been revealed to you from Your Lord, and if you do not then

you have not delivered His message and Allah will protect you from the people; Indeed

Allah does not guide the unbelieving people.”Suratul Ma’ida 5:68

It was terribly hot; the Prophet (SAW) gave instructions for making a pulpit (mimbar) so he

could deliver the message of the Lord. A pulpit of saddles was hastily made and Bilal gave the

Adhan (call to prayers). After prayers he stood on the pulpit and delivered the following sermon;

"All glory is exclusively for Allah. We seek his help and have faith in him and rely on him.

We seek refuge in him from our evil doings and indecent deeds. He is the Lord besides

whom there is no guide. There will be none to mislead one whom he guides.

I testify that there is no God but Allah and Muhammed is his servant and his messenger. O

people! I may soon accept the divine invitation and depart from amongst you.

I am responsible and you too are responsible.

What is your opinion about me ?"

At this stage those present said loudly :

"We testify that you have carried out your mission and made efforts in this behalf. May

Allah reward you for this."

The Prophet (SAW) continued :

"Do you testify that the Lord of the world is one and Muhammed is his servant and

messenger and that there is no doubt about life in the other world ?"

All the people said :

"It is correct and we testify it !"

Then the Prophet (SAW) said :

"O my followers ! I am leaving behind two heavy (valuable) things as legacies to you and it

is to be seen how you behave with these two legacies of mine."

At this moment a person stood up and said with a loud voice:

"What do you mean by these two valuable things ?"

To this the Prophet (SAW) replied:

"One of them is the book of Allah and the other thing is my progeny and my Ahlulbayt.

Allah has informed me that these two things will not get separated from each other. "O

People ! don't seek precedence over the Qur'an and over my progeny, and do not be

negligent in your behaviour towards them, lest you be destroyed."

At this moment he took Imam Ali's hand and raised it so high that the whiteness of both of

their armpits was seen. He introduced Imam Ali (AS) to the people and said:

“Who enjoys more rights over the believers than themselves?"

All of them said:

"Allah and His Prophet (SAW) know better".

Then the Prophet (SAW) said:

"Allah is my mawla (master) and I am the mawla of the believers and I am more deserving

and enjoy more rights over them then they themselves."

"O people! Of whomsoever I am mawla, this Ali is also his/her mawla."

Then he raised his hands for dua:

"O Allah! Love those who love Ali, and be the enemy of those who are the enemies of Ali.

O Allah! help Ali's friends and humiliate his enemies and make him the pivot (centre) of


Just then Jibrail appeared and brought the following revelation:

"This day I have perfected your religion for you and completed my favours to you and have

chosen Islam as your religion." uratul Ma'ida 5:3

At this moment the Prophet (SAW) pronounced takbeer loudly and then added:

"I thank Allah for having perfected His religion and for having completed His favour and for

His having been pleased with the master ship and succession of Ali after me."

Then the Prophet (SAW) stepped down from the pulpit and said to Imam Ali (AS):

"Sit in a tent so that the chiefs and distinguished personalities of Islam may shake hands

with you and congratulate you."

The two shaykhs (Abu Bakr & Umar) were the first to congratulate Imam Ali (AS) and call

him their mawla.



A month after the Prophet (SAW) returned from the farewell Hajj, he fell ill.

As the health of the Prophet (SAW) worsened, Sayyida Fatima (AS) became very sad. The

Prophet (SAW) asked her not to be sad and whispered something in her ear that made

her smile. When she was asked about it later, Sayyida Fatima (AS) said that her father had

told her not to be sad because she would be the first to join him in the hereafter.

Three days before he died he asked for a paper, pen and ink so he could write some advice

for the Muslims so that they would always stay on the right path.

One of his companions, Umar who was there refused to give him what he had asked for

saying that the Qur'an was enough and that the Prophet (SAW) was sick and did not know

what he was saying. The Prophet (SAW) got angry and sent him away.

During the last moments of his life, the Prophet (SAW) opened his eyes and asked for his

brother to be called. Ayesha called her father Abu Bakr, but when the Prophet (SAW) saw

him he placed his head back on his pillow and repeated that his brother should be called

for. Hafsa, another wife of the Prophet (SAW) called her father Umar, but the same thing

happened. Ayesha then sent for Imam Ali (AS) saying that the Prophet (SAW) would see no one else.

When Imam Ali (AS) arrived, the Prophet (SAW) raised his cloak and took him under its

cover. He then placed his head on the chest of Imam Ali (AS) and talked to him for a long


Just then there was a knock on the door. Sayyida Fatima (AS) told the caller to come later,

as her father was very ill. However, the caller was insistent and kept on knocking.

Tears welled up in Sayyida Fatima's (AS) eyes, but her father said to her:

"O Fatima, let him in. For it is none other than the Angel of Death. It is only out of respect

of your presence that he is asking for permission to enter, otherwise he waits for nobody

when he comes to take away the soul."

Soon afterwards the signs of death began to appear on the Prophet’s (SAW) face. His last

words were : “Salaa! Salaa!”

It was Monday 28th Safar 11 A.H. He was 63 years old.

Imam Ali (AS) gave him ghusl and kafan. He is buried in his house in Madina which adjoins

the mosque.


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